Large, shy tree dwellers. Common in wet lower forests from southern Alaska to southern California, and the coniferous and mixed forests of Southwest between 5- and 10,000 feet. Timing: summer in northern California and above, northern Southwest; otherwise year-round. Prefers mature coniferous and mixed forests; forage in parks, fields, orchards and backyards. Large with a thick, short bill; plumage is gray with white collar, yellow bill. Two distinct populations: West Coast and Southwest. Often in flocks of dozens to hundreds. Pigeons feed chick crop-milk, which means they don’t need to find a specific food for their chicks, which allows for a longer breeding/chick-raising season. . Diet includes nuts, seeds, berries. Oldest wild individual recorded was 18. Population ~ 14 million.