Flocking, hopping, active ground-foraging sparrow. Common east of the Rockies; summers in Canada, winters in US, including West coast. Largish for a sparrow, with solid body and long tail; brown above, gray below; some birds have white throats, others tan. Wavering song sung year-round. Prefer woods and edges; often at feeders in winter. Primarily seed and berry eaters, with insects in the summer. Typically ground nesting, and usually under some vegetation. Lifespan up to 9 years. Population ~ 140 million and declining.