Ubiquitous, city-dwelling dove. Introduced in the early 1600s; now common throughout the Americas up to southern Canada. Substantial, plump-bodied, and typically gray with black wing bands (brown and white variations common); broad, pointed wings. Prefer cities and farmland, and occasionally rocky cliffs; inextricably connected with humans, having been domesticated in Mesopotamia thousands of years ago. Ground- feeder, largely on seeds, fruit and litter; some invertebrates; drinks through bill like a straw. Builds and reuses flimsy nest in nooks or ledges, which builds up into sturdy mound over time. Lifespan up to 5 years in the wild and 15 years in captivity. Population ~ 12 million and stable.